technology as an emerging public safety concern
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technology as an emerging public safety concern
Running Head: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 10
26 July 2019
From the problem statement, is quite clear that technology is an emerging public safety concern. The researcher methodology will be used to collect information that will be used to confirm or dispel the research hypothesis; there are not enough measures and regulations in the adoption and use of technology to guarantee public safety.
This research methodology will help to confirm if are there enough measures and policies to deal with technology as a public safety concern or not. The research is problem-oriented. As the name suggests such research refers to researches carried out in order to find out or identify the exact nature of an issue or problem that needs to be solved (Creswell & Clark, 2017). For this case, the research methodology will provide a framework in which the measures and policies on technology will be assessed to determine if they are sufficient enough to deal with technology as a public safety concern or not. In order to carry out an effective study, the research method that will be used is the mixed methods research methodology.
Secondary data analysis
The first method to be used is the archival study or what is referred to as secondary data analysis. There are three primary reasons as to why secondary data analysis will be applied in the research. The first reason is that secondary data analysis is cost-effective. Archival studies help are a cheap source of data or information as researchers are able to save themselves the hustle as well as the costs of carrying out similar studies that most likely will yield similar results (Johnston, 2017). The second advantage of using archival studies is that secondary data is typically clean data and for that reason, the researcher does not have to spend too much time analysing the data. Instead, the researcher can spend time only analysing the data as well as trying to come up with hypotheses.
The third advantage of using archival studies is that it opens up the research team to a lot of data in relation to the study topic that is available to the public. The researchers have many sources of data for their research that are reliable and that can be verified. On the other hand, the use of archival studies has one main limitation and that is the secondary data set might not answer the research team’s research question to the satisfaction of the researchers.
The secondary data analysis will involve going through five studies carried out in relation to the measures and policies in place in terms of regulating technology bearing in mind that technology is a public safety concern. The five studies will be reviewed with the aim of establishing whether indeed the measures and policies in place are effective at regulating technology as far as public safety is concerned or not. In addition, the reviewed studies will highlight the limitations of the current measures and policies in place as well as the recommendations that should be adopted as regards the regulation of technology are concerned. Only recent studies will be reviewed and analysed for the study for reliability purposes.
Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations
The first article to be reviewed is an article published by Daniel Fagnant and Kara Kockelman in 2015. The two individuals started by first identifying the potential benefits of having autonomous vehicles. They state in their publication that such vehicles will lead to less congestion on the roads, safer road, and reduced parking. In addition, autonomous vehicles are expected to provide approximately $3000 per year in terms of societal benefits. The two authors as well claimed that testing and licensing standards in the US are not being developed nationally as each state is coming up with its own standards. The article’s authors fear that the above will lead to inconsistency of standards in the nation (Fagnant & Kockelman, 2015).
To make matters worse, Daniel and his fellow researcher highlight in their publication that there are safety concerns as regards the use of autonomous vehicles that are yet to be addressed. They as well highlight that liability as regards the vehicles is not clearly defined as well as the privacy standards. The researchers are short of saying that there are not enough measures in place for the regulation of the use of autonomous vehicles in the US. As part of their recommendation, the two researchers recommend that the federal government should come up with a nationally recognized framework that will guide the licensing and operation of autonomous vehicles. In addition, the federal government should expand research in the use of such technology in order to come up with proper and effective regulation for the sake of public safety.
Cost-Benefit Analysis of policies for the development of electric vehicles in Germany: Methods and result
The second article to be reviewed is an article by Jerome Massiani. Jerome carried out the study with the aim of establishing whether electric vehicles are comprehensively evaluated with the intention of ensuring that the vehicles are safe for human use as well as if they are beneficial to the economy compared to fuel-powered vehicles. Jerome’s study helped to reveal that electronic vehicles are not properly regulated as they run on the same policies as fuel operated vehicles. The above study is of a European nation widely known for its embrace of technology. Despite the country’s wide acceptance and adoption of technology, the nation is yet to have in place effective measures and policies to guarantee the public safety of its citizens as well citizens of other nations who benefit from the use of electric vehicles manufactured by Germany (Massiani, 2015).
Review of the Current State of UAV Regulations
The third study is on a study is on unmanned aerial vehicles and the study was carried out in 2017. Unmanned aerial vehicles make it possible for data to be gotten at both spatial and temporal scales that cannot be achieved by traditional remote sensing techniques or platforms. The research team that carried out the study indicated in their publication that the currently existing regulations on unmanned aerial vehicles provided barriers to development and research (Stöcker et al., 2017). In addition, the research team highlighted that the present regulations did not quite guarantee the safety of air transportation.
Furthermore, the research team highlighted that there were three main things that made the regulation of unmanned aerial vehicles unreliable. The first thing was that the regulation was heterogeneous. The second thing was that the regulations in place were prescriptive and proscriptive. The third thing was that there is an incongruence between technology and regulation. The research team as well gave recommendations for the regulation for unmanned aerial vehicle to guarantee public safety. The first recommendation was that there should be a convergence of unmanned aerial vehicle technology and the law. The second recommendation was that there should be both soft and hard regulation. The third recommendation given by the research team was that the regulation should be supported by mature and risk-based international laws.
Sustainable Urban Transport in the Developing World: Beyond Megacities
The fourth study that was reviewed was a study carried out in 2015. The study revolved around megacities and the development of sustainable urban transport. The study as well focused on how public safety will be maintained in the cities considering that city have elaborate and complex transport system that if not properly regulated can expose the inhabitants to unnecessary risks (Pojani & Stead, 2015). The team responsible for the study starts their research by highlighting that the top ten megacities of the world house almost a quarter of the world’s total population. The two researchers carried out a study that revealed that most megacities were ill-prepared to cater for any technology hitch that might be a threat to human life in comparison to other smaller cities and for that reason were more exposed to public safety concerns more than small cities.
The research team recommended at the end of their study that more policies and regulations need to be in place for megacities in order to make them safer for human occupation and to guarantee public safety. The technologies invested in megacities need to be under regulation and control in order to ensure that people are safe as they enjoy the benefits of the megacities. The teams as well recommended that public transportation systems in megacities should be well regulated considering that lapses in the technology operating the transport system would expose people to unnecessary risks.
The survey method
The second method that will be used for the research study is the survey method. There are about four survey methods that are available for use for this research. The survey methods include; mobile surveys, paper surveys, online surveys, and phone surveys. There are four reasons as to why the survey method will be used for this study. The first reason is that surveys are inexpensive more so if the correct survey method is used. For example, mobile surveys and online surveys are relatively cheaper compared to phone and paper surveys.
The second reason is that surveys are extensive. Surveys allow the collection of data from a large population. The use of the survey method will be critical in collecting data for the study considering that the target population is relatively huge. The third reason is that surveys are flexible. Surveys can be administered in different methods and for that reason, different survey methods can be used to collect data from a diverse study population (Church & Waclawski, 2017). The fourth reason is that surveys are dependable. The natures of surveys, the anonymity of surveys, make it easier for respondents to respond honestly.
The survey methods to be used in the research were online surveys and mobile surveys. The use of these two survey methods is inexpensive as a customized online survey monkey survey will be sent out to 150 email responders and 100 mobile phone responders. In total 250 responders will be expected to participate in the survey. The respondents’ email address and telephone numbers will be gotten from a voluntary list for an online survey participation request that they will sign up as they exist three identified malls in the state. The respondents will be expected to answer 5 questions on an online questionnaire. A sample of the questions is below
Questions Strongly disagree disagree undecided agree Strongly agree 1. There is enough regulation on technology. 2. The government is looking out for my best interest as far as technology regulation is concerned. 3. Technology is a serious public safety concern 4. I feel safe using new technology 5. Technology does not pose as a security concern for me and my family
The Interview method
The third method that will be used for the research study is the interview method. The interview method is one of the data collection methods that is preferred by researchers because it allows researchers to collect detailed information about personal opinions, perceptions and feelings towards and issue or a matter (Alshenqeeti, 2014). Just as with the other two methods that will be used for data collection for the study, the interview method has four main advantages or benefits to the study. The first benefit is that the interview method allows more detailed questions to be asked as well as allows for clarification to be sought by both the interviewee and the interviewer.
The second benefit of the interview method to the study is that the method in most cases achieves a high response rate compared to other data collection methods. The third benefit is that respondents’ words are recorded and for that reason can be referred to in case of issues in the study. The fourth benefit of the interview method is that the interviews cannot be influenced by group mentality; those being interviewed are not under the control of a group. There are as well as two reasons that discourage the use of the interview method. The first reason is that data collection using the interview method is time-consuming. Setting up an interview, carrying out the actual interview and analysing the feedback takes up a lot of time. The second reason is that the interview process is a costly affair.
For data collection using the interview method, open-ended questions will be used on the interviewees. The researcher-developed questionnaire will also be used to collect information that will confirm or dispel the research hypothesis; there are not enough measures and regulations in the adoption and use of technology to guarantee public safety. In total fifty interviewees will be interviewed for the research. Out of the fifty interviewees, ten of them will be state officials, five of them will be CEO’s of major technology firms in the state, twenty of them will be people, the public, who randomly signed up for an interview session as they existed from the three identified malls in the state. Five of them will be political activists and ten of them will be officials from the state’s public safety department. The respondents were chosen as they are for the purposes of collecting unbiased data from all stakeholders of technology innovations as well as from the general public. Below is a sample of the five interview questions that will be used in the study.
- Do you consider technology to beneficial to humankind? Why do you think so?
- Do you believe that public safety in reference to public safety is being handled in a responsible manner? Why do you think so?
- Do you believe that there is enough regulation of technology in the US? If not why do you think so?
- Do you believe that the government can do better in terms of measures and policies in terms of ensuring public safety as far as technology is concerned? Why do you think so?
- Have you ever been a casualty of Malfunctioning technology, faulty systems or system glitches? What do you think should have been done to save you the trouble that you underwent?
The data collected from the secondary data analysis will be reviewed for the purposes of identifying patterns in the research. For example, the data from the secondary data analysis will be reviewed in order to confirm if all secondary sources find similar information; whether there are measures and policies regulating the use and development of technology as far as public safety is concerned or not. Data will be computed in order to identify the number of respondents that believe that the current regulations in place are effective at guaranteeing public safety.
The data from the survey will be Filtered by cross-tabulating the subgroups of the survey. Just as in survey analysis, after the cross-tabulation, the next thing that will be done will be the interrogation of data where a question like what is the most common answer for question 1 will be used to help the interrogation process (Heeringa, West, & Berglund, 2017). The analyzed data will be complimented from the data analysis carried out on the secondary data analysis.
Data from the interview process a thematic content analysis will be done. The research team will first familiarise itself with the data (Braun, Clarke & Rance, 2014). Secondly, the team will search for recurring themes as well as search for the meaning of the patterns identified. Thirdly, the themes will be reviewed to make sure that the identified themes are present and if they make sense. Lastly, a coherent narrative will be formulated. The narrative will include examples of quotes from those interviewed. The analyzed data will be complimented from the data analysis carried out on the secondary data analysis as well as the survey analysis. From the analysis, it will be possible to draw conclusions for the research study.
The findings will be represented in a table and a pie chart. The table will contain the actual findings of the study i.e. the data that supports the hypothesis will be on one half of the table and the data that dispels the hypothesis will be on the other half. The pie chart will give a graphical representation of the summary of the findings.
In addition, the contextual analysis of the data collected will be done and it shall explain the meaning in sentence form. The data that will be tabulated in the table and the graph will be data that only corresponds to the central research question. In order to ensure that the findings provide information for future studies, the secondary findings of the research will also be provided in sentence form.
There are two most likely conclusions that will be made from the study. The first conclusion is that indeed, there are no effective measures, regulations, and policies to direct the development and use of technology to an extent that public safety are guaranteed. The second conclusion is that further research needs to be carried out as regards the regulation of technology for the purposes of maintaining or guaranteeing public safety. Possible recommendations for the research include; the Aligning of state regulation with both national and international regulation to ensure that the licensing standards are the same, shifting to an adaptive regulation system that incorporates a responsive approach in dealing with technology and moving from a one size fits all type of regulation.
Alshenqeeti, H. (2014). Interviewing as a data collection method: A critical review. English Linguistics Research, 3(1), 39-45.
Braun, V., Clarke, V., & Rance, N. (2014). How to use thematic analysis with interview data (process research).
Church, A. H., & Waclawski, J. (2017). Designing and using organizational surveys. Routledge.
Creswell, J. W., & Clark, V. L. P. (2017). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage publications.
Fagnant, D. J., & Kockelman, K. (2015). Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 77, 167-181.
Heeringa, S. G., West, B. T., & Berglund, P. A. (2017). Applied survey data analysis. Chapman and Hall/CRC.
Johnston, M. P. (2017). Secondary data analysis: A method of which the time has come. Qualitative and quantitative methods in libraries, 3(3), 619-626.
Massiani, J. (2015). Cost-Benefit Analysis of policies for the development of electric vehicles in Germany: Methods and results. Transport policy, 38, 19-26.
Pojani, D., & Stead, D. (2015). Sustainable urban transport in the developing world: beyond megacities. Sustainability, 7(6), 7784-7805.
Stöcker, C., Bennett, R., Nex, F., Gerke, M., & Zevenbergen, J. (2017). Review of the current state of UAV regulations. Remote sensing, 9(5), 459.
The background and significance of the problem and a clear statement of the research purpose is provided. The search history is mentioned.
Content is well-organized with headings for each slide and bulleted lists to group related material as needed. Use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. to enhance readability and presentation content is excellent. Length requirements of 10 slides/pages or less is met.
More depth/detail for the background and significance is needed, or the research detail is not clear. No search history information is provided.
Review of relevant theoretical literature is evident, but there is little integration of studies into concepts related to problem. Review is partially focused and organized. Supporting and opposing research are included. Summary of information presented is included. Conclusion may not contain a biblical integration.
Content is somewhat organized, but no structure is apparent. The use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. is occasionally detracting to the presentation content. Length requirements may not be met.
The background and/or significance are missing. No search history information is provided.
Review of relevant theoretical literature is evident, but there is no integration of studies into concepts related to problem. Review is partially focused and organized. Supporting and opposing research are not included in the summary of information presented. Conclusion does not contain a biblical integration.
There is no clear or logical organizational structure. No logical sequence is apparent. The use of font, color, graphics, effects etc. is often detracting to the presentation content. Length requirements may not be met
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technology as an emerging public safety concern