Summary of Objectives for Older Adults Paper
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Summary of Objectives for Older Adults Paper
OA–1: Increase the proportion of older adults who use the Welcome to Medicare benefit.
OA–2: Increase the proportion of older adults who are up to date on a core set of clinical preventive services.
OA–3: (Developmental) Increase the proportion of older adults with one or more chronic health conditions who report confidence in managing their conditions.
OA–4: Increase the proportion of older adults who receive Diabetes Self-Management Benefits.
OA–5: Reduce the proportion of older adults who have moderate to severe functional limitations.
OA–6: Increase the proportion of older adults with reduced physical or cognitive function who engage in light, moderate, or vigorous leisure-time physical activities.
OA–7: Increase the proportion of the health care workforce with geriatric certification.
Long-Term Services and Supports
OA–8: (Developmental) Reduce the proportion of noninstitutionalized older adults with disabilities who have an unmet need for long-term services and supports.
OA–9: (Developmental) Reduce the proportion of unpaid caregivers of older adults who report an unmet need for caregiver support services.
OA–10: Reduce the rate of pressure ulcer–related hospitalizations among older adults.
OA–11: Reduce the rate of emergency department (ED) visits due to falls among older adults.
OA–12: Increase the number of States, the District of Columbia, and Tribes that collect and make publicly available information on the characteristics of victims, perpetrators, and cases of elder abuse, neglect, and exploitation.
From U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Healthy People 2020 summary of objectives: Older adults, n.d. Retrieved from: http://healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives2020/pdfs/OlderAdults.pdf.
BOX 19.2 Recommended Screenings and Examinations for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention in Older Adults
Examinations and Tests
For All Older Adults
Complete physical: Annually
Blood pressure: Annually; more frequently if hypertensive or at risk
Blood glucose: Annually; more frequently if diabetic or at risk
Serum cholesterol: Every 5 years; more frequently if at high risk
Fecal occult blood test: Annually
Sigmoidoscopy: Every 5 years
Colonoscopy: Every 10 years; more frequently if at high risk
Visual acuity and glaucoma screening: Annually
Dental examination: Annually for those with teeth with cleaning every 6 months; cleaning every 2 years for denture wearers
Hearing test: Every 2 to 5 years
Breast self-examination: Monthly
Clinical breast examination: Annually
Mammogram: Every 1 to 2 years if aged 40 years or older; check with health care provider if 74 years or older
Pelvic examination and Papanicolaou smear: Annually; may check with health care provider about discontinuation at 66+ years or after three consecutive negative Pap test results or >2 consecutive negative human papilloma virus (HPV) and Pap tests, no abnormal results in previous 10 years and not otherwise at risk, or have had a total hysterectomy
Digital rectal examination: Annually with pelvic examination
Bone density: Once after menopause and more frequently if at risk
Digital rectal examination and prostate examination: Annually
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test: Annually
Immunizations for All Older Adults
Tetanus, diphtheria, pertussis: Every 10 years
Influenza/flu vaccine: Annually
Pneumonia vaccine: Once after age 65 years; ask physician about booster every 5 years
Hepatitis A and B: For those at risk
Herpes zoster (shingles): One-time dose
Varicella: If evidence of lack of immunity and significant risk for exposure
Data from American Cancer Soci
It is very important that nurses educate their older adult clients/patients about normal physiological changes, safe sex practices, and STDs.
An open approach to discussing sexuality will be very helpful to elders who are embarrassed about bringing these topics up.
“It is estimated that there are 2.4 million lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender (LGBT) adults over 50 living in the United States and that number is expected to double by 2030” (Choi and Meyer, 2016).
LGBT individuals face societal stigma, isolation, stereotypes, and prejudices (Miller, 2015). These individuals are more likely to be single, particularly because legal marriages are fairly new, and are less likely to have children compared with heterosexual older adults.
Thus, they may have less support and fewer caregivers if assistance is needed. Gay and bisexual men have a higher risk of HIV and STDs. Nurses must recognize and address the health needs of these individuals by providing education and referral to appropriate community resources.
In addition, the nurse should provide information about various community resources and make referrals to agencies that might be helpful.
Ms. Thomas, age 62, is divorced and has been raising her three grandchildren, ages 11 to 13, for the past 10 years. She was forced to retire from full-time teaching to assume this role. Her daughter, the children’s mother, is bipolar and schizophrenic, and has tested positive for HIV.
All of the grandchildren have medical problems and/or special needs, including asthma, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and emotional/behavioral concerns.
Ms. Thomas is very organized and keeps track of their many medications via a written schedule containing the name of each medication, dose, and time of administration.
Ms. Thomas expressed increased stress, tension, and anxiety as a result of caregiving responsibilities and neglect of her own needs. She has hypertension, a “thyroid condition,” asthma, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and allergies.
She admits to occasionally forgetting to take her own medications because of her busy schedule. She rates her health as “fair” overall and “somewhat worse” in comparison with that of other people her age. She reports significantly less time for herself and leisure activities.
Nonetheless, Ms. Thomas is determined to raise her grandchildren as well as possible. Despite her circumstances, she is very positive and optimistic that her grandchildren will grow up to be successful and respectable citizens.
Your 80-year-old client has become very frail and needs assistance with several activities of daily living. No family members are able or willing to take care of him full-time.
The family has asked you for advice. What information would you share with them about alternative housing options?
Discuss the aging process.
Discuss the demographic characteristics of the elderly population.
Describe psychosocial issues related to aging.
Describe physiological changes due to aging.
Recognize Healthy People 2020 wellness goals and objectives for older adults.
Describe health/illness concerns common to the elderly population.
Identify nursing actions that address the needs of older adults.
Identify resources available to older adults.
The background and significance of the problem and a clear statement of the research purpose is provided. The search history is mentioned.
Content is well-organized with headings for each slide and bulleted lists to group related material as needed. Use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. to enhance readability and presentation content is excellent. Length requirements of 10 slides/pages or less is met.
More depth/detail for the background and significance is needed, or the research detail is not clear. No search history information is provided.
Review of relevant theoretical literature is evident, but there is little integration of studies into concepts related to problem. Review is partially focused and organized. Supporting and opposing research are included. Summary of information presented is included. Conclusion may not contain a biblical integration.
Content is somewhat organized, but no structure is apparent. The use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. is occasionally detracting to the presentation content. Length requirements may not be met.
The background and/or significance are missing. No search history information is provided.
Review of relevant theoretical literature is evident, but there is no integration of studies into concepts related to problem. Review is partially focused and organized. Supporting and opposing research are not included in the summary of information presented. Conclusion does not contain a biblical integration.
There is no clear or logical organizational structure. No logical sequence is apparent. The use of font, color, graphics, effects etc. is often detracting to the presentation content. Length requirements may not be met
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