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Project on Biology Study Questions
Write hypothesis statements using biological concepts as a guide.
Determine the independent, dependent, and control variables in the experiment.
Identify the difference between qualitative and quantitative data.
Using indicator solutions, determine the presence of amino acids, proteins, glucose, and starch.
Discuss the interactions of various biological substances with various chemical test reagents.
Discuss the many chemical functional groups in biological molecules and their functions.
Identify chemical function groups in biological compounds and recognize them.
Experiments to be Conducted
Experimentation is the bedrock of scientific knowledge. Experiments are meticulously planned to ensure that the results can be understood. It is critical that all variables be accurately specified, quantified, and controlled when conducting experiments. You will need to identify, measure, and control certain variables in the laboratory experiments in this course, just like a scientist would.
The first stage in conducting an experiment is to formulate a question based on a finding. “Does the amount of nitrogen in the soil in my garden have an impact on the number of tomatoes on the vine?” you might wonder. After that, you’d create a testable hypothesis statement. “I hypothesize that when the nitrogen level in the soil is low, the quantity of tomatoes in my garden will be low,” for example.
a variable that is not controlled
This variable’s value (for example, the amount of nitrogen in the soil) will be set, and it can be set to a variety of values (for example, nitrogen levels could be low, medium, and high).
Variable that is dependent
Depending on the value of the independent variable, the value of the variable will change (for example, the number of tomatoes on the vine will be high when the amount of nitrogen is medium, but the number of tomatoes on the vine will be low when the amount of nitrogen is low and high). The main experimental finding is the value of this variable. You would indicate how the independent variable will affect the dependent variable in a hypothesis statement.
Variable under control
These settings will be set such that they do not change. By keeping these variables constant, you can ensure that they have no effect on the independent or dependent variables (for example, if you set up three different test gardens for low, medium, and high nitrogen soil levels, you’ll want to make sure that they all get the same amount of water and sunlight). Water and sunlight are the variables that you can influence in this situation.)
The outcomes of an experiment can be qualitative or quantitative. Because you can count the amount of tomatoes in the case above, the experimental result is quantitative; that is, you can quantify the outcome. If the dependent variable is the appearance of blotches on the tomatoes, for example, this could be considered a qualitative conclusion because neither the number of blotches nor the number of tomatoes with blotches is quantified. We’re just looking for blotches to see if they’re present. Essentially, we’re assessing the result’s quality.
Molecules in Biology
All stuff is made up of atoms; therefore, living organisms are likewise made up of atoms, and the chemistry of life is discussed. The periodic chart of elements reminds us that chemical elements in particular groups on the left side of the periodic table interact with chemical elements on the right side of the periodic table; for example, sodium chloride NaCl interacts with other elements on the right side of the periodic table (salt).
The interaction of the ingredients that make up living creatures is also crucial. Biological molecules are the building blocks of organelles, cells, tissues, and organs, and they interact with elements and other biological molecules via functional groups, which are collections of elements. A biomolecule with typical amino and carboxyl functional groups is shown in the image below. The “R” group is referred to as a “side chain” since it represents a group of atoms linked to the functional groups.
Sugars (saccharides) include both hydroxyl and aldehyde functional groups. The aldehyde group of saccharides reacts with chemicals in a Benedict reagent test solution. When a specific type of sugar (known as a reducing sugar) is present, the color of the test changes. Monosaccharides like glucose and fructose are sugar reducers.
Peptides are polymers of amino acids that make up proteins. In proteins, there might be a lot of amine/amino functional groups. These groups interact with compounds in the Biuret Test reagent, a test solution. It’s worth noting that some peptides act more like long-strand molecules than proteins. Long strands of peptides have amino groups that can interact with substances in the Biuret Test solution.
Carbohydrates (sugars), lipids (fats), and proteins are the three nutritional categories for macromolecules.
Note that the Benedict and Biuret testing solutions are just examples. In reality, your lab work will necessitate the use of wholly distinct testing solutions.
Getting Started with Biomolecules Lab Activities
Overview of Procedure I
Group 1: Known Sample Solutions – In this technique, you’ll see how different test solutions react (color change) when they’re added to a collection of known sample solutions. This data will be utilized in the next step to figure out what kinds of biomolecules are present in a set of unknown sample solutions.
Overview of Procedure II
Group 2: Unknown Sample Solutions – In this technique, you’ll see how different test solutions respond (color change) when they’re added to a collection of unknown sample solutions. You’ll be able to determine the sort of biomolecule present in each unknown sample solution using information from the preceding technique.
Additional Information and a Form for Activity
The Group 1 Sample Solutions and the Exercise Form required to complete this activity are listed below. The right procedure for submitting your work will be explained to you by your instructor.
Sample Solution for Group 1
Classification of Biomolecules
The background and significance of the problem and a clear statement of the research purpose is provided. The search history is mentioned.
Content is well-organized with headings for each slide and bulleted lists to group related material as needed. Use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. to enhance readability and presentation content is excellent. Length requirements of 10 slides/pages or less is met.
More depth/detail for the background and significance is needed, or the research detail is not clear. No search history information is provided.
Review of relevant theoretical literature is evident, but there is little integration of studies into concepts related to problem. Review is partially focused and organized. Supporting and opposing research are included. Summary of information presented is included. Conclusion may not contain a biblical integration.
Content is somewhat organized, but no structure is apparent. The use of font, color, graphics, effects, etc. is occasionally detracting to the presentation content. Length requirements may not be met.
The background and/or significance are missing. No search history information is provided.
Review of relevant theoretical literature is evident, but there is no integration of studies into concepts related to problem. Review is partially focused and organized. Supporting and opposing research are not included in the summary of information presented. Conclusion does not contain a biblical integration.
There is no clear or logical organizational structure. No logical sequence is apparent. The use of font, color, graphics, effects etc. is often detracting to the presentation content. Length requirements may not be met
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Project on Biology Study Questions